Wednesday, 22 March 2017

Interview with Bollywood Screenwriter Pubali Chaudhuri

This interview with Pubali Chaudhuri was done a while back but am re-posting it as it is a one-of-a-kind interview that discusses the craft and business of screenwriting.... Enjoy! 

Pubali Chaudhuri is a Bollywood screenwriter who has had two of her scripts turned into blockbuster Bollywood films. Rock On!, a movie about four friends who reunite to relive their moments of glory as a rock band, which released in 2008 was Pubali’s debut screenwriting effort for the Hindi film industry. This was followed by Kai Po Che four years later and was directed by Abhishek Kapoor who had helmed Rock On! as well. Like Rock On!, KPC is a story about friends but the tone, mood and feel of the film is totally different. It tells the tale of three friends, Ishaan, Omi and Govind who start a training academy to produce the country’s next cricket stars. Adapted from Chetan Bhagat’s novel 3 Mistakes of My Life, the story is set in Gujarat during the turbulent times of the Godhra riots. The film recently won a clutch of awards and earned Pubali her first Filmfare Award for screenwriting. Here she talks about her writing, discusses the story decisions she took while writing Kai Po Che and ponders on life as a sceenwriter in this candid interview. But a word of caution to readers who haven’t yet seen the film, there are a few spoilers…so first watch the film and then come back and check out this interview. And now, over to Pubali….

You did a film screenwriting course in FTII and you land a top assignment, writing Rock On! for a top production house in Bollywood! That sounds like a screenwriter’s dream come true. Could you tell us a bit about that journey?
 
Perhaps you never know when you’re living a ‘dream’ … but yes, there was hard work and happy coincidence behind it. A friend and colleague Aditya Kripalani had introduced me to Abhishek in 2006, who had a story idea about a music band reuniting after a gap. At that point there was no producer or actor attached to the project, so I started the project as a spec thing that the director is trying to mount. The fact that Abhishek could rope in Farhan and Excel Entertainment and the film got made was good luck for us. And perhaps some merit in the script?

As a writer of a “hit” film you should have been flooded with screenwriting offers. But there seems to have been a bit of a gap between your first and second assignments. Care to talk about it? Were you dejected? Or were you taking it cool and doing other things? 

Define ‘hit’ film! Rock On! certainly wasn’t a blockbuster hit like the Rs. 100+ crore plus films are touted to be. It did fairly well at the box office and was noticed for its difference in content and treatment. I think Rock On! gave us recall value and a certain branding more than commercial success.
Maybe it’s just my awful networking skills or maybe it has something to do with the position of a writer in the film industry that my phone stayed steadfastly silent after the film released, at least as far as job offers went!
I’m sure I had one or two assignments but I certainly wasn’t well known in town… I started working on Kai Po Che in 2009… the fact that it took four years in the making is the story of how unpredictable and uncertain the process of film making can be! In between I had also worked with couple of other directors, was hired by studios for couple of other assignments but none of them made it to the shooting floor. I was also teaching part time at Whistling Woods while writing KPC. I’ve been working consistently …well, as consistently as freelancers can or do! But the number of scripts you write and the number of films that happen are rarely equal for a writer.


Kai Po Che has established you as one of the top writers in the Hindi film industry and you have the Filmfare Award as testimony. a) How does that feel? and b) how scary was the prospect of adapting a popular book by Chetan Bhagat?
 
I have one Filmfare Award to show for KPC. But it definitely felt like an acknowledgement from the industry for the hard work one puts in. It also felt, in many ways, as if it’s the end of a chapter of my life – since my move to Bombay, starting off a new career to finally getting a public acknowledgement for my work. Honestly, my first thought was if I can retire from “Bollywood” now. LOL. Or it’s just the beginning of the miles ahead.

To answer your second question, I don’t think I was daunted at the thought of adapting 3 Mistakes of My Life. Having been a literature student, you would feel daunted if you had to adapt the works of a literary giant like Tagore or Gabriel Garcia Marquez. I think my bigger concern that the film should not be a total embarrassment for me in front of the discerning audience.

Did you have a brief from director Abhishek Kapoor on the adaptation? Can you tell us a bit about your process for adapting the book into a screenplay. And the inputs provided by Kapoor and Chetan Bhagat?

With three years of writing and rewriting the process has become somewhat of a haze for me. I know I wrote a hilarious piece recounting that journey when KPC was about to release. My own writer’s journey through development hell! Maybe you should share that with your readers as ‘additional reading’  Abhishek proposed that we take up the novel for adaptation and both him and Chetan were open to changes that would be required to make the film work. Abhishek suggested that we change the ending (which is different from the book). That of course meant rewriting half the story… and was exactly why I said yes to the project. That changed ending made it a challenging project and left me room to play with the story, develop Omi’s character and flesh out the friends’ journey, which would lead to that climax. We were always struggling with length in KPC and Chetan did a marvelous job of chopping off about the first 10 minutes once we get into the flashback. And this happened as late as after 15 drafts were already done!

Many screenwriting gurus insist that the protagonist of a film should always “drive the action”. However, in Kai Po Che, the three protagonists are kind of victims of circumstances, things happen to them and they react to it. Your thoughts? 

Umm, I think in KPC you have a balance of characters driving the story and things happening to them. And that’s closer to life, isn’t it? The boys decide to open a sports shop to take charge of their future; Ishaan specifically goes out to spot Ali and makes it his mission to train the boy; it’s Govind’s ambition that drives them to book a store at the upcoming mall. Vidya drives the romance between her and Govind. Omi is perhaps the most passive of the three lead characters – but that’s part of the design of the story. It is because Omi is the ‘lackey’ amidst the three friends that he finally gets swept away by the importance he finds in the political party, thanks to his uncle’s influential position. The external events that impact the characters’ lives shape up into a specific form of dramatic situation because of who they are. For example, after the earthquake, when Ishaan takes Ali and his family and neighbours to the relief camp, it is Ishaan’s secularism and Omi’s latent communalism and weakness of character that leads to the big fight between the two friends.

It’s often said that the antagonist is just like the protagonist except that he/she doesn’t have the moral core. Ishaan’s character was almost similar to Bittu Mama in terms of his zeal and passion but of course while Bittu is obsessed about religion, Ishan’s passion is cricket. Even so, it seemed to me like Ishaan’s character has something less than noble about it — given that he is motivated also by the fact that Ali’s success will translate into money and fame for him as well as help him redeem himself — Omi even hints at it when he says: “Ishaan only cares about himself”. Did this flaw in his character bother you during the writing? Did you worry during the writing that Ishaan was too much of a grey character/anti-hero? Your thoughts about the crafting of a nuanced character such as Ishaan.

Well, to begin with, flawed characters fascinate me. Nice guys not only finish last, they make for boring stories! Nobody is perfect and neither should our heroes be, for them to become relatable and identifiable as characters. You look at Mahabharat and each and every character is nuanced… the Pandavas have their faults and Krishna is a manipulator. That’s what makes it great story telling.
It is interesting that you mention Ishaan’s interest in Ali’s cricketing career as ‘less than noble’. The Ishaan-Ali ‘love story’ so to say, is the emotional core of the film for me – it’s the purest relationship I have within the plethora of characters. Ishaan brings Ali under his wings not because Ali’s cricketing talent can someday bring rewards to Ishaan (and that would have been a really weak motivation to drive the film) but because Ishaan spots the potential in Ali and believes that the boy should get a chance to realize it. Ishaan himself has not been able to succeed in cricket and perhaps it is his sense of failure that makes him passionate about Ali’s chances at the game. In that sense, his motives are ‘selfish’ to the extent that he wants to relive his dream through this boy. But a coach–protégé relationship goes much beyond personal gains… do you think Ramakant Achrekar’s fame or riches compare with Sachin Tendulkar’s?! So it is certainly not material success that drives Ishaan.

As for Omi calling Ishaan selfish, it’s actually Omi’s hurt talking. I wanted to build Ali-Ishaan-Omi almost like a ‘love triangle’. Omi is Ishaan’s trusted shadow and he suddenly feels his position usurped by this two bit Muslim boy. He in fact says that how could Ishaan hit him in front of so many people just for the sake of that boy…that’s jealousy talking!
Ishaan is more self absorbed than selfish (though the lines can be blurry) …but I guess people who are dreamers and have a passion like a malaise (as cricket is to Ishaan) can be like that – the world blurs out and you only have eyes for your goal.

Real life events — like the Gujarat earthquake, the riots, the India-Australia cricket match — anchored the story and yet didn’t overwhelm the fictional story. How hard was it to achieve this balance? 
 
The real life events impinging on the fictional lives is one of the reasons why KPC is more than just a buddy film. I suppose we had two kinds of problems – on one hand finding how something like the earthquake would affect the personal stories and on the other hand, how the riots should not overshadow the personal stories. The Gujarat violence is still such a raw scar on our nation that it took quite a bit of effort not to have it overtake the entire narrative. It was well possible to make a sharper political statement with KPC but Abhishek was sure that he wasn’t making a ‘political film’. When your film’s climax is set against the genocide it’s tough to stay away from the politics of it. But on the other hand we were in no way making a propaganda film – so the idea was to stay focused on the characters and how the events impact their life paths.

One of the most visually and emotionally dramatic moments in the film is the scene where Ishaan and Omi resolve their differences and it’s cricket that provides the bonding force. What is your special moment in the film and why? 

My favourite would probably be when Ishaan goes to make up with Ali, after having slapped the boy. I always had a mental picture of Ali’s den…a room on the terrace that is the boy’s own personal world. Ali has locked himself in that room and Ishaan asks him politely if he can come inside…in answer Ali rolls out a marble and then as we enter Ali’s room we see that Ali has drawn the same diagram of the cricket field that Ishaan had drawn to explain on and offside to the boy. It’s a small little moment, but I have always felt that it conveys so much of the relationship between Ishaan and Ali without having to take recourse to dialogue. In like about 15 seconds I am able to convey the crux of the bonding between these two characters – that Ishaan does not ask Ali to come out but instead requests to be let in- thus signaling that he is ready to give up his ‘top’ position to reach out to the boy. And in turn Ali trusts him enough to let him enter his personal space …and through that diagram we get a sense that the boy hasn’t been blind to Ishaan’s lessons – that he is in fact trying to learn and ingest the passion that Ishaan shows for the game.

Did you ever toy with the idea of giving screen time to Ishaan’s back story (his failure as a cricketer)? 

No, never. Too much of lame screenwriting happens because filmmakers don’t trust the audience’s intelligence. I do not agree that the audience has to be spoon-fed.

This film is about three friends who have known each other since childhood and we catch them in medias res…in the middle of the action. Or rather at a critical juncture when they are getting together to start a new initiative. It was imperative that we have trust in our story telling and not fall back upon lame flashbacks to explain what happened before. We don’t get into how their friendships were formed -we just see 3 characters and through their current day interaction we come to know that these boys have known each other for ages- they exude that kind of familiarity. Similarly Ishaan’s passion for cricket is signaled right from the first scene and then in subsequent scenes we get to know that he failed a selection test. When Omi tries to flatter Ishaan by reminding him of some brilliant match he played earlier, Ishaan simply responds with a half sarcastic comment ‘world famous in Belrampur’. Effective writing exists between the lines and in the nuancing of characters and actions. So, no, I never considered giving out back-stories through flashbacks and resisted using voice over to retain the tone of the book in the film.

You said somewhere that you wrote 18 drafts of the script… how do you keep going and not lose focus and motivation during the revisions? 

Lately I’ve realized that there hasn’t been a single project where I haven’t felt like it’s beyond me; I cannot do this and I should give up! As a writer when your project doesn’t get greenlit, when actors repeatedly turn down the roles pointing that the script isn’t working for them, it just adds to the huge shadow of self doubt that anyway a writer battles on a daily basis while writing. Somewhere around the tenth draft, I realized, thanks to a meeting with Mr. Javed Akhtar, why the script isn’t working. A year’s work had already gone in and I guess I was both daunted and challenged by what lay ahead to make this story work on screen. So I went back to the drawing board and rewrote the story first – because we had a fundamental story problem with three characters having three different goals.
Rewrites can be painful but it’s an essential process. It tests the writer’s grit and conviction in the story. I realized that the script is not working but I guess I had too much ego to give up on the project – I had to get it right. Or somewhere close to right.
A still from Kai Po Che
What are you writing next and when does one get to see the next Pubali Chaudhuri written film? 
 
A career in films is a career in ‘speculation’ …especially for directors and writers who start from scratch and have no idea what the fate of the project will be. Somewhere along the line, you dismiss making any plans for the future. Its like Krishna’s famous saying ‘work without expectations of results’. So frankly, I don’t even know, that there will be another ‘Pubali Chaudhuri’ film, as you so kindly put it  The Rock On sequel has been an on going project for more than 2 years – maybe it will some day become a film. Maybe I shall quit midway. Like a good plot, you never know what’s coming next in life!

Your advice to women scriptwriters who want to break into the Hindi film industry.
Hmm, to begin with, I don’t like being labeled as a ‘woman’ in my line of work. That way, I have been a ‘woman content writer’, a ‘woman line producer’ etc etc. I would like to believe that in the work arena, I’m a professional first and a woman second.
Having said that, I would be lying if I said gender politics doesn’t play a part in our everyday lives or in our professional dealings. In that sense you should be ready to face a double ‘handicap’.
Generally speaking, a film writer is not regarded as an important position in the film industry. Over and above that, if you’re a woman it will be tougher to get yourself heard or taken seriously in a room full of men who are sure they know better than you! I’d say you need a hide as thick as a rhinoceros, the tenacity of a long distance runner, and over and above all, humility and a dedication to your art that must be safeguarded against everything else you face in the industry.
Thanks a million, Pubali, for taking the time to do this interview and all the best for your future writing assignments.



 

Sunday, 12 March 2017

How to Motivate your Writer Self & your Novel's Characters - Part 1

"Knowing is not enough; we must apply. Being willing is not enough; we must do." -- Leonardo da Vinci

Writers need to be self-starters. The act of finding an idea, developing it, putting it through its paces to make sure there is enough meat and material to turn it into a certain length requires an enormous amount of motivation. More so, because there is no tangible gain: no promise of a fat advance for your manuscript and no guarantee that your indie book will sell millions of copies. That itself is a huge barrier to writing.

The delicious irony of being a writer is that the act of writing a piece of fiction also involves creating characters that have 'motivation'. Without motivation, your characters will not have enough juice to power your novel's plot. So, as a writer you are doing double duty -- motivating yourself and finding some for your characters. It would be great if you could find a bottle of that wonderful ingredient called Motivation in a store, wouldn't it?

Don't lose heart though. There is always a way around every problem that seems impossible. 

The first step is to recognise the signs before tackling it. Are you stymied because you don't seem to be generating enough story ideas? Or the ideas seem uninspiring, boring, cliched? Well, the good news is that you need to go after inspiration with a club. Here are some simple and fun ways to do it:

  • Read something that's totally not in your comfort zone. If you are an avid reader of fiction, read non-fiction.  Or vice-versa. If you are not into poetry, take a shot at it. Seems simple enough? But here's the catch. Read mindfully. Keep your mind alert to absorbing new ideas and concepts. And you will be surprised at how new thoughts and ideas pop into your head. 
  • If that doesn't work for you, go for a long walk -- preferably in an area that you are not too familiar with -- and leave your smartphone behind. Keep your eyes and ears open. Be observant. After you return from your walk make a quick note of things that you liked or what you didn't. Do this a few days in a row and you will not only shed some unwanted kilos but will also find your brain throwing up new ideas
  • Invite your friends or relatives you haven't met for a while and spend some time reminiscing over the past, finding out what they are doing right now and their hopes and desires for the future. Make it about them. And you just might be inspired by some event, incident or thought. You're a writer--don't be scared to lift ideas. The best part is that you can give it your own unique twist. 
  • Talk to strangers. No, I'm not encouraging you to stalk strangers. But if you find yourself waiting in a queue, talking to the person standing next to you may be a good way to pass the time. Recently, I was at a government office and found myself pulled into a discussion by a total stranger. The fun part about this is that you may or may not find the conversation scintillating, but it's always helpful to mindfully listen to how people talk, to pay attention to their mannerisms, or an interesting turn of phrase. You never know when you could use that to make one of your characters more interesting.
  • If all these methods fail, you can fall back on the tried and tested way of kickstarting the writer in you. Attend a writing workshop and commit to doing the exercises/homework. It always works for me. Or check out some of the prompt-generating sites to get started.

    Would love to hear your thoughts on how you find inspiration and motivate yourself.

    In the next part of this article I shall discuss how you can motivate your characters. Stay tuned!

Wednesday, 1 March 2017

#BlogTour of 1857: Dust of Ages by Vandana Shanker


1857: Dust of Ages

1857. The rebellion erupts in India. Despite its attempts to stay aloof, NAVGARH, a small town near Delhi, is drawn into the conflagration. And at its heart are Princess Meera and Captain Richard Smith, with their strange alliance made for the throne of Navgarh.

2016. Shiv Sahai, a young Indian art historian and Ruth Aiken, a British scholar discover an excerpt from the journal of an anonymous British soldier, searching for his wife in the chaos of 1857 Delhi. As they begin investigating the scandal, they become aware of the vague rumours that are told in the bylanes of Navgarh -- about a princess who married a British soldier to save her kingdom.



My Review

A well written historical fiction novel is difficult to pull off. Not only do you need to get your facts right, you need to tell a story that is compelling. 

So when I came across Vandana Shanker's 1857: Dust of Ages I was intrigued. Not often do you come across a romance story that is set in the tumultuous times of India's First Independence War.

Full marks to the author for exploring these dramatic times. The story of Captain Smith and Princess Meera set against the backdrop of the Sepoy Mutiny unfolds when in 2016 Shiv Sahai discovers an old document in his family haveli. Intrigued by the letter he digs deeper into his family history.

The layers are peeled away and you get a glimpse into the 1850's and the fascinating story of a royal family caught up in the politics of the time.

It's a fascinating read and I look forward to reading the next part of the story.
About the Author: Vandana Shanker 


Delhi-born Vandana Shanker is the author of the series 1857 Dust of Ages, a historical fiction set in the year of the great uprising in India. A Ph.D from IIT Delhi, Vandana is passionate about history, storytelling and art. Apart from writing, she teaches literature and creative writing in Malaysia. She has also taught in universities in India and Vietnam. She currently lives in Kuala Lumpur with her family and wants to travel the world.  

Connect with her on: WebsiteFacebook, Twitter, Goodreads

Blog Tour Hosted by: TBC Blog Tours

Wednesday, 22 February 2017

"Nobody deserves to suffer because of the way they look": Sudesna Ghosh

When I read Sudesna Ghosh's novella, Just Me, the Sink and the Pot, I was struck by how poignant the story was. Told from the perspective of an overweight young girl, Pamela, who struggles with negative body image issues, I wondered how much of her story came from the author's own experience. Sudesna shares her story of how Just Me... was born. Over to you, Sue!

"You're so pretty. Guys would love you if you'd lose some weight!" I've heard that line ever since my school days and believe me, the words hurt each time. So I grew up knowing I was pretty enough but too big to be loved or appreciated. If it wasn't kids my age, random aunties and uncles and strangers did the job of making me feel terrible about myself. Sometimes people excused their damaging words as 'concern' but that didn't help really. Fast forward to 2010, when I was at my heaviest body weight and hiding myself from people as much as I could, I decided to write Just me, the Sink & the Pot – that’s the title of my latest book.

As I wrote about Pamela's journey as a girl with negative body image, I relived my own school days. Yes, my book is fiction because a lot of it was written based on other overweight friends' experiences, but I can’t deny that a lot of it is me. In the book, my protagonist goes through issues that are characteristic of the Terrible Teens but it’s much worse because she is overweight and that takes over the way she thinks and perceives the world. To Pamela, it’s a world full of ‘normal’ sized people and her. From hoping with all her heart for that first kiss, to hopelessly watching the other girls talking to the boys in class, life sucks for Pamela. The book can get you teary at times.
Look at me. I’m 30+ and I thought I didn't deserve love or sex or romance of any kind for years. Why? Because of my body shape and weight. It took me this long to learn to love myself even though there are still days of doubt. I don't blame old classmates. They were young and probably picked up such behaviour and attitudes from older people around them and the media. And the uncles and aunts and strangers probably grew up being called ugly so they took it out on me. But till this day, I feel worse when women treat other women badly about the way they look.

I've hardly heard a conversation between two girls that didn't involve fat shaming another female. I've sat through movies with young girls criticising heroines for their butt size, their thigh width and their audacity to show cleavage past their 20s. I've also come across women and celebrities who claim to be against body shaming and size zero figures - but then they turn up in their skinny avatar all over again - not hiding their crazy diets from magazines and newspapers. I remember Parineeti Chopra getting a big award almost as soon as she lost a ton of weight. Closer home, I remember a neighbour finding a groom only after she lost 20 kilos and after she managed to live on boiled veggies and she made a habit of fainting.

So whom do I blame? Schools? The media? Bollywood? Our forefathers? More importantly, can we teach empathy? How many people know or care about the long term effects of negative body image? I'm not a Deepika Padukone, so even if I speak about this for ten hours straight, it won't be a big deal. But I hope to make it a big deal some day. Nobody deserves to suffer because of the way they look. Pamela in my story, is one of many girls who struggle to get the happiness that they deserve.

Sudesna Ghosh is an author based in Kolkata, India. Just me, the Sink & the Pot is her first fiction book. Her previous books are What Would I Tell Her @ 13 and News Now. When Sudesna isn’t writing, she is reading books or doing her bit for animal welfare.
Just Me, the Sink & the Pot is now available on Amazon sites worldwide









Thursday, 16 February 2017

The Different Stages of Writing - and an Appeal

Every story idea has its own distinct journey. Each is unique and can never be identical to the path that any of your previous ideas has travelled. Perhaps, that's the most exciting thing about writing.

A few months ago a filmmaker friend asked me if I would be interested in writing a short film. He had come across a true incident which he wanted to make a film about. That was the beginning of the journey for "Seven Lives", a short film that I scripted for filmmaker Runjiv J. Kapur.

When Runjiv discussed the idea with me, I knew it had the potential to be made into a thought-provoking, dramatic film. The subject was about society's role and how it can impact individual lives. As a writer I was excited about it and I began writing a draft. The first stage of the story's journey had kicked in.

The story development process is the second stage of the writing process. The stage when the writer distills the idea and plays with it, trying to give it  shape, substance, style.

After several brainstorming sessions and tweaking of the various elements of the script, it acquired its final shape.

And now begins the story's third and final phase of the journey. When the story travels beyond the computer and the printed page into a live action film. Excitement mounts, as you can't wait to see how your story plays out on the screen.

Seven Lives has entered its third phase. And yet there is a way to go before it hits the screen: the funding and filmmaking process.

As a writer, my role is limited in this phase but yes, as a team member I can pitch in a bit. And I hope you will also participate in this exciting journey with me.

While a chunk of the film's funding is in place, we are hoping to crowdfund the project. Details of the project are attached in the link.

It would be wonderful if you could contribute in any small way towards this short film which discusses a very important subject: Organ Donation. Even sharing it among your friends and family would be of enormous help. Please click this link to find out more about Seven Lives.

Thank you! I look forward to your participation. :) 

Sunday, 12 February 2017

Misadventures in Digital La La Land

My first post in 2017 -- after a long break from blogging -- is ironically enough about my misadventure in digital La La Land.

Sometime just before the launch of my latest book I decided to overhaul my Wordpress website and give it a spiffy new look. And like all my "projects", I went on a mega research exercise. I checked out websites of romance authors and believe me there are some REALLY impressive sites out there. After much deliberation I decided on the "look and feel" and got a web developer to design it for me. The site was launched and those who have followed my blogs might agree with me when I say it was one good looking site.

Problem was it was too pretty for its own good!  I'm a bit embarrassed to say that it intimidated me. 😂My blogging went downhill and my excuse was: lack of time.

When 2016 came to a close I was appalled to see that my blog was languishing in its perfectly pristine state. And I was getting tired of seeing the same images and posts day in and day out. Just proves that too much beauty can also be boring!! Determined to get back into blogging mode I started tinkering with my website when disaster struck... the website crashed. Yep! Panic time.

Meanwhile, the website designer had decided to switch careers (I kid you not!) and I was left high and dry with a website that wouldn't work. Time for a complete overhaul -- I got rid of the Wordpress site and opened a no-frills Blogger site.

So, here I am. This time, no fancy-pants website but a functional blogging platform where I can share my thoughts, a few images, some trivia and fun stuff and above all, reconnect with my readers. All designed by yours truly.... maybe I will get the hang of designing a good-looking website. Maybe not. But who cares...functionality and not just aesthetics is what counts at the end of the day. And as you can see, it's still a work-in-progress. Lesson learnt: there's nothing better than D-I-Y.

Have you had any such disasters in digital la la land? Please share your thoughts in the comments below. (Also, bouquets and brickbats for my maiden website-designing effort are welcome.) 😀